Stages of Farming

Stages of Farming

The Stages of Farming is the annual stages of activities related to the growth and harvest of a crop. These activities include loosening the soil, seeding, special watering, moving plants when they grow bigger, and harvesting, among others.

The main steps for agricultural practices include preparation of soil, seeding, crop protection and harvesting.

SOIL PREPARATION

Soil Preparation

Farming starts with the soil preparation stage where the soil is aerated and fertilised properly to make it a suitable place for seed & seedlings to grow. Normally soil aeration is achieved with the use of Power weeders, Inter cultivators & Tractors depending upon the area of the farm. Fertilisers are mixed with the soil through several processes including few fertigation (Irrigation with Fertilisers) process & certain traditional methods. Water pumps & boring systems play a crucial role in fertilising the farm area.

SEEDLING

Seedling

After the soil is prepared it’s time for the seeds to be sown. Seeds can be treated with various chemicals before the sowing process to make the plant more disease resistant. With or without the treatment, the seeds are sown with the help of various seeding tools in the soil. In some cases seeds are first grown into seedlings inside poly houses & green houses. Manual seeders help in sowing of the seeds in the soil. Seedling transplanter is also an important tool for seedling transplanting tool.  This helps to improve the germination rates in the seeds. After the seeds turn into seedlings it is implanted in the outside soil for further growth. For transplanting crops like rice bigger machines like rice transplanters are available.

CROP PROTECTION

Crop Protection

This is a very vital step in any farming process as this has to be done with a lot of care & one needs to have multiple tools & equipments to implement pesticide spraying in the plants which depends on the plants & also the type of pests that can affect the plant growth. Also various irrigation techniques like drip irrigation & conventional irrigation techniques using water pumps are very important for plant growth & to ensure supply of water to the plants. Equipments that are very essential for this process are :-

a) Knapsack Backpack Sprayers

Knapsack Power Sprayer

Knapsack sprayers are being used traditionally in the farming process for pesticide spraying. Knapsack sprayers come in 3 variants which are i) Manual Knapsack sprayers ii) Electric or battery operated knapsack backpack sprayers iii) Petrol operated Knapsack backpack sprayers. Depending on the spraying requirement & the farm area one can select any of the 3 variant to achieve results.

b) Power Sprayers

Power Sprayer

Such sprayers are normally used in the farms which have tall trees & mangroves. It is specially used in farm which have Mango, Litchi plantations for which one needs to spray upto good heights. Power sprayers also come in several variants which are majorly classified into i) Portable 2 stroke & 4 stroke Chintu sprayers   ii) Trolley type power sprayer iii) HTP sprayer sets. Depending on the plantations one can select the models.

c) Mist Blowers & Thermal Foggers

Mist Blowers & Thermal Foggers

Mist blowers are used for spraying smaller droplets of water containing pesticides so that the light weighted droplets stick to the leaf & the plant surface for a longer time and do not fall. Mist blowers are also know to use 50 percent lesser water for spraying the same amount of pesticides compared to power sprayers. One thing that should be noted at the time of using mist blower is the fact that mist blowers do high pressure spraying which might damage sensitive crops and therefore a spraying distance of upto 6 feet should be maintained. Thermal foggers  on the other hand are used in the areas which has a lot of flying pests. Occasional fogging helps in the reduction of flying pests which majorly affect certain crops like Cherry tomatoes, brinjals, etc.

HARVESTING

Paddy Harvester

This is the most awaited time in the farming process. A farmer cultivates the results of his effort. But in the recent times Indian farming has seen a lot of mechanisation in the harvesting techniques. For various crops like the paddy, soybean, sugarcane,etc Indian farmers have started to use machines like  paddy harvesters & brush cutters. However for harvesting special produce like Palm, tea, etc Palm harvesters & tea pruners are a very handy product. Harvesting is typically a very labour intensive process if it is not mechanised.